- Ambushed On Ledo Road
- Burma In Limbo
- Daw Moe Swe: Red matron
- Scourge of Burma
- Second Lt. Hnin Aung
- Rice Riots to Race Riots
- Song For Irrawaddy
- Aung Moe and Amy
- Midnight Searches
- 1978 Opium War
- Major Kyaw San?
- Burma's Killer Highways
- First Anglo-Burmese War
- Tha-din-gyut in Mawgyun
- Shans' 1962 Federal Mu
- Burma's Land Reform
- General Min Aung Hlaing
- Islamic Genocide of Buddhists
- Irrawaddy Waters and Ne Win's Gold Trees
- Chun Doo-Hwan Bombing
Sunday, June 25, 2017
(Direct translation of late Naing Win Swe’s novel “Ma Thein Shin Si Pote Pay Bar”.)
It was a foggy winter morning. The big train standing in thick mist seemed to be afraid of leaving the safety of the warm Station. But it had to go. It blew a lot of smoke and reluctantly began the journey. It turned on the front spotlights but the pale beams shorn just a short distance ahead in the fog.
Gradually gaining speed the train appeared to slowly overcome its fears as if its blood were now boiling. Once the dim lights of Taung-dwin-gyi station were well behind it the train squeezed out a long blow of single horn as if it was cheering up itself to travel deep into the foggy darkness ahead.
Immediately the train appeared to think that the sound of its own horn was the cheers from the surrounds and it became excited and now it was madly rushing into total darkness.
Thursday, June 22, 2017
Following is the whole of IPAC (Institute For Policy Analysis Of Conflict) Report No.37 under the title “How Southeast Asian and Bangladeshi Extremism Intersect” released on 8 May 2017.
II. Transborder Movements
III. Historical Links
A. Ties to the Rohingya Solidarity Organisation (RSO)
B. The Early al-Qaeda Years
IV. Escalation Since 2013
A. Arrests in Singapore
B. Arrests in Malaysia
V. The Holey Artisan Bakery Attack, July 2016
A. The Malaysia Links
B. Other Pro-ISIS Bangladeshis with Malaysia Links
C. Bahrum Naim’s Reaction to the Dhaka Attack
D. Bangladeshis and Indonesians in Syria and Iraq
VI. Bangladeshis and Jihad in the Philippines and Myanmar
A. Recruitment for Mindanao
B. Rohingya Militancy
|Captured ISIS-Bangladeshi Cell in Singapore.|
The Bangladesh-Southeast Asian links take several forms:
• Bangladeshi migrants working in Singapore and Malaysia who recruit fellow workers for violence at home – a tiny proportion of the country’s overseas workers. Many have been supporters of Ansarullah Bangla Team (ABT), a group responsible since 2013 for several fatal attacks on secular activists. ABT, which now calls itself Ansarul Islam, is the Bangladesh arm of al-Qaeda in the Indian Subcontinent (AQIS).
• Bangladeshi students from middle-class families studying at Malaysian universities who develop pro-ISIS sympathies, either at home or while in Malaysia.
• Bangladeshis who use Kuala Lumpur as the take-off point for travel to Syria.
• Bangladeshis and Southeast Asians who meet each other as ISIS fighters in Syria or Iraq.
• Pro-ISIS Malaysians or Filipinos who try to recruit Bangladeshi and Rohingya migrants in Malaysia to fight in Mindanao.
Monday, June 19, 2017
The container ship was seen making a U-turn before the collision on some ship trackers, a move that has raised questions about what happened. All of the ACX Crystal's 20-member Filipino crew were safe, according to Japanese shipping company Nippon Yusen K.K., which operates the ship.
The waters where the collision occurred see as many as 400 ships pass through every day, according to Japan's coast guard. They are especially congested in the early hours of the day, with ships carrying cargo for early morning delivery in Tokyo. The waters also have fast currents, making it a tricky area that requires experience and skill to navigate.
|Muslim mob attacking the timid German police.|
The case goes back to January 2014, when a 26-year-old clan member, arrested for robbery, tried to escape from the magistrate's office by jumping out of a seventh-floor courtroom window. The suspect was taken to the hospital, where he died. Members of his clan subsequently ransacked the hospital, as well as the court, and attacked police with rocks and other projectiles; 24 police officers and six paramedics were injured.
The judge said he was lenient because the defendants witnessed the death of the 26-year-old and were traumatized. The judge also revealed that he had reached a deal with the clan, which among other effects prevented police from testifying in court.
Saturday, June 17, 2017
|Radicals from Hefazat-e-Islam are killing Bangladeshi Atheists.|
Passersby cast wary looks at a bunch of men lurking outside the entrance to the Hathazari madrasa. They stand out, having neither beards nor traditional dress. Indeed, one of them has had the bright idea of wearing a flowered shirt. For the past few weeks the madrasa in Chittagong, central Bangladesh, has been under police surveillance. It houses 12,000 Qur'anic students, guided by Shah Ahmad Shafi, who heads Hefazat-e-Islam, the country's largest and latest radical Islamic movement.
At his instigation over 500,000 demonstrators clogged the streets of Dhaka on 5 May, demanding the application of 13 measures, including a ban on mixing of men and women in public places, the removal of sculptures and demands for the former wording of the constitution to be reinstated, affirming "absolute trust and faith in Almighty Allah".
Friday, June 16, 2017
|Singapore's founding Lee Family.|
Singaporeans awoke on Wednesday morning to the latest and most public installment of a family feud between the children of the island state’s national founder and first Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, who passed away in 2015.
In a long public statement entitled “What Has Happened to Lee Kuan Yew’s Values?”, uploaded to Google Drive and posted on their Facebook pages, Lee Wei Ling and Lee Hsien Yang said that they had lost trust and confidence in their brother – Singapore’s current Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong – and accused him of misusing his power and position “to drive his personal agenda.”
“We feel big brother omnipresent. We fear the use of the organs of state against us and Hsien Yang’s wife, Suet Fern,” they wrote, revealing that Lee Hsien Yang has since decided to leave the country.
The Somali-born Dutch-American Ayaan Hirsi Ali — an honor violence victim, a strong advocate against female genital mutilation (FGM), and author — strongly disagreed. During a hearing on Islamic ideology and terror held by the Senate Homeland Security and Government Affairs Committee Wednesday, Ali testified alongside the former U.S. official who served under Presidents George W. Bush and Barack Obama.
Political Islam, focused on establishing an unfree society ruled by strict sharia law, is “fundamentally incompatible” with the U.S. Constitution and the overall “foundation of the American way of life,” declared Ayaan Hirsi Ali, an expert at the Hoover Institution think tank, during a Senate panel hearing.
“My central argument is that political Islam implies a constitutional order fundamentally incompatible with the US Constitution and with the ‘constitution of liberty’ that is the foundation of the American way of life,” proclaimed Ali in her written testimony.
Thursday, June 15, 2017
Indigenous people said over 200 homes and shops were vandalised and burned to ashes after they were looted, although an official of Longadu upazila put the figure at 110. Pulin Mitra Chakma, chairman of Longadu sadar union, said an elderly Chakma woman was hacked to death by the attackers. He identified the victim as Gunamala Chakma, 70, of Tintila village.
Following the attack beginning around 10:00am, some 300 Chakma families from three villages fled their homes in panic, according to community people. Some photos posted on Facebook show dozens of men, women and children carrying backpacks and handbags crossing a canal, presumably to safety.
Wednesday, June 14, 2017
The Federal Reserve raised its benchmark rate on Wednesday for the fourth time since 2008. The central bank says it is targeting a range between 1 percent and 1.25 percent for overnight borrowing between banks.
“Job gains have moderated but have been solid, on average, since the beginning of the year, and the unemployment rate has declined,” the Fed said in its analysis of current economic conditions. It noted that inflation has recently declined.
The Fed’s expectations for future rates suggest that there will be one more hike this year, in line with what the market had been expecting. Neel Kashkari, the head of the Minneapolis Fed, dissented from the Fed’s decision. He would have refrained from raising rates.
A woman who’s reportedly a Burmese domestic helper from Myanmar jumped from the 19th floor of The Interlace condominium at around 7pm yesterday.
SCDF officers were unable to rescue the woman. The case is being investigated. The Interlace is a 1040-unit condominium development located in Depot Road. It won the World Building of the Year at World Architecture Festival in 2015.
The woman is identified as Zin Mar Oo aged 25 from Arakan but she appears to be not older than 15. There was a suicide attempt by another 15-yr old maid from Burma in Singapore recently who was found to be carrying a false passport of a 25 year old woman.
The woman is identified as Zin Mar Oo aged 25 from Arakan but she appears to be not older than 15. There was a suicide attempt by another 15-yr old maid from Burma in Singapore recently who was found to be carrying a false passport of a 25 year old woman.
Tuesday, June 13, 2017
Since 2013, dozens of people have been slaughtered in Bangladesh, many with machetes. Although ISIS claimed responsibility for many of the brutal killings, no formal investigation into the murders was ever launched.
Instead, Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina took the opportunity to arrest more than 11,000 people, only 145 of whom were Islamist terrorists. The rest were charged with crimes such as theft and drug-dealing, indicating that it might have been part of Hasina's crackdown on critics since her election in 2008.
“When the world’s preeminent human rights body is turned into a haven for dictators (and Islamists), the idea of international cooperation in support of human dignity is discredited,” she says in an op-ed for the Washington Post, published Friday.
Haley is due to address the Council in Geneva on June 6–the first-ever address to the Council by a U.S. Permanent Representative–before she then travels to Israel, where she will meet with Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and visit a number of Israeli historical sites.
Sunday, June 11, 2017
Muslim Groups Unhappy With Indianapolis ‘Perfect Man’ Billboard: A billboard in Indianapolis, IN is stirring controversy among local Muslim groups, says a Fox 59 report. The billboard, seen going southbound I-465 near the Washington Street exit mocks the prophet Mohammed as “The Perfect Man.”
The billboard then lists six bullet points about Mohammed to describe him. The points include: “Married a 6-year-old,” “Slave owner & dealer,” “rapist,” “Beheaded 600 Jews in one day,” “13 wives, 11 at one time” and “Tortured & killed unbelievers.”
“I was a little disappointed when I saw that,” Farial Khatri of the Islamic Society of North America told Fox 59. “We do support free speech, but we do realize this is also rooted in bigotry,” Kahtri added. According to Fox 59, the Muslim Alliance of Indiana plans to raise money to put up its own billboard close by to spread a message of peace and kindness.
Saturday, June 10, 2017
|Are British men cowards now? They were never before!|
Run - to a place of safety. If there is nowhere to go then
Hide - Turn your phone to silent and turn off vibrate. Barricade yourself in if you can
Tell - the police by calling 999 when it is safe to do so
What does happen to that Winston Churchill’s famous WW2 “We Shall Fight Them On The Beaches” speech? Are the British men becoming cowardly softened by the Political Correctness? Are they surrendering to the Islamists and Leftists by forgetting Churchill’s “We Shall Never Surrender” promise to his people?
Friday, June 9, 2017
Tawhidi spoke to Daily Mail Australia and gave his take on the Saudi Arabia soccer team ignoring the moment of silence for the victims of the London Bridge terror attack before a recent World Cup game. “They did not stop for a moment of silence because according to Wahhabi Islam - which governs Saudi Arabia - it is not wrong or a sin for a Muslim to kill a non-Muslim,” the imam said.
He added that it is a “lie” to suggest, like the team did, that it was simply a cultural difference. “Their response suggests that within Muslim culture they don't remember the dead with a moment of silence. This is a lie,” he said. “In their eyes the attackers are martyrs who are going to paradise. And if they stand for a minute of silence they are against their Muslim brothers who fought for jihad and fought the ‘infidels.’”
But then something happened: Gere gradually stopped starring in mainstream studio movies. Although this plight is routine for actresses, Gere maintains that mainstream Hollywood’s motive to dump him had nothing to do with age—and everything to do with another factor entirely.
That factor: China, the country that finances much of Hollywood these days. Not so coincidentally, it’s also the country that Gere—a practicing Tibetan Buddhist and longtime friend of the religion’s exiled leader, the Dalai Lama—infamously disparaged during the 1993 Oscars when he went off-script while presenting the art-direction category.
“There are definitely movies that I can’t be in because the Chinese will say, ‘Not with him,’” Gere tells The Hollywood Reporter in a new interview. “I recently had an episode where someone said they could not finance a film with me because it would upset the Chinese.”
Thursday, June 8, 2017
The team was preparing to play Australia on Thursday morning, and as two Australian women had died in the Islamist attack last weekend, there was a minute’s silence planned in their honour. As it began, Saudi players stood in their playing position, instead of lining up, and those on the bench remained seated, refusing to stand in respect.
Critics said the move was disrespectful and claimed it showed the Saudis could sympathise with the killers of non-Muslims. Other, however, said that Muslim respect the dead in their own way – by praying, giving to charity, and speak highly of the person – but rarely by observing a silence.
Tuesday, June 6, 2017
Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, the UAE and Egypt all announced they were cutting ties to Qatar and booting the country from an Arab coalition fighting in Yemen early Monday, amid a deepening fissure between Gulf Arab nations. The move came two weeks after US President Donald Trump visited Saudi Arabia, calling on Arab and Muslim leaders to fight extremism and terrorism, and isolate Iran.
The dispute between Qatar and the Gulf’s Arab countries started over a purported hack of Qatar’s state-run news agency, running a false story quoting a top official touting relations with Israel and Iran. The crisis has spiraled since.
Monday, June 5, 2017
|Putin: "Have all Americans gone mad over Trump?"|
In the interview, marking the inaugural episode of NBC News’ Sunday Night with Megyn Kelly, Putin faced a barrage of questions covering every aspect of the various senseless allegations that Democrats and the so-called mainstream media have made.
He dismissed any notion that he had a close relationship with former National Security Adviser Michael Flynn, and mocked the idea that Trump’s son-in-law, Jared Kushner, had nefarious dealings through the Russian ambassador:
Sunday, June 4, 2017
|So-called religions scholar Reza Aslan and his shitty book.|
The president took to Twitter Saturday evening, saying, “We need to be smart, vigilant and tough. We need the courts to give us back our rights. We need the Travel Ban as an extra level of safety!”
That triggered CNN host Reza Aslan, who lashed out, writing, “This piece of shit is not just an embarrassment to American and a stain on the presidency. He’s an embarrassment to humankind.” Aslan hosts a show called “Believer with Reza Aslan” on the network in which he “immerses himself in the world’s most fascinating faith-based groups to experience life as a true believer,” according to the show’s website.
A white transit van ploughed into a crowd of people on the bridge at speed shortly after 10pm. The three men then stabbed, while shouting this is for Allah, people with 12-inch knives at nearby Borough Market, with a transport police officer among those injured. Three attackers were shot dead by police in the attack on London Bridge and Borough Market. Police said they believed there were no more than three attackers.
The London Ambulance Service said 48 people had been taken to five hospitals across the capital and a number of other people were treated at the scene. Conservatives have suspended their national campaigning for the General Election in the wake of the London Bridge terror attack. A senior party spokesman said national events were being suspended on Sunday and a decision on further campaigning would be taken later in the day.
Saturday, June 3, 2017
|$100 billions a year for minuscule temperature drop!|
Before we discuss the Paris Accord, I’d like to begin with an update on our tremendous, absolutely tremendous, economic progress since election day on Nov. 8. The economy is starting to come back and very, very rapidly. We’ve added $3.3 trillion in stock market value to our economy and more than a million private sector jobs.
I’ve just returned from a trip overseas where we concluded nearly $350 billion of military and economic development for the United States, creating hundreds of thousands of jobs. It was a very, very successful trip, believe me.
Friday, June 2, 2017
|Very quiet at Burmese Parliament!|
Among the priorities are the century-old law governing private enterprise, which needs urgent updating; a badly worded defamation clause in the Telecommunications Law that is all too often deployed by anyone holding a grudge; and the passage of a law penalising violence against women, to deal with a glaring omission in the criminal code.
One might expect the first freely elected Hluttaw, or parliament, in more than half a century to be working overtime on this daunting list. Instead it is becalmed. Just days before it was due to reconvene in May, U Tun Tun Hein, chairman of the committee that organises parliamentary work, was at a loss to say what would be done in the next session. “I cannot tell you which laws will be prioritised,” he admitted. Members of parliament did not even know how long they would sit in Naypyidaw—Myanmar’s eldritch capital city.
The previous parliament, led by the figleaf party of Myanmar’s long-standing military regime, was far more energetic than the current one dominated by the National League for Democracy (NLD), which swept elections held in 2015. The old house churned out on average more than twice as many laws per session, asked substantially more questions of the government and passed almost four times as many motions to the executive.
Thursday, June 1, 2017
These women in hijabs marching on Washington do not have to live in this "Utopia." They are comfortably living in the "infidel West," protected from such barbarity. The Western culture that allows women to shout into microphones is not even necessarily the culture these women believe in; it is often just a tool they use to promote totalitarian ideas such as anti-Semitism, religious intolerance and imposition of theocratic beliefs.
Most prominent of those so-call Feminist Muslim Women, Lind Sarsour, tweeted on 12 May 2015, “You’ll know when you’re living under Sharia Law if suddenly all your loans & credit cards become interest free. Sound nice, doesn’t it?”
Wednesday, May 31, 2017
|US interceptor missile launched from Vandenberg Air Base.|
During the test, the Pentagon's Missile Defense Agency launched an interceptor rocket from an underground silo at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. The interceptor hit and destroyed an intercontinental-range missile fired from a test site on Kwajalein Atoll in the Pacific, the Pentagon announced.
U.S. Missile Defense Agency Director Vice Adm. Jim Syring called the test a "critical milestone" in a statement. "This system is vitally important to the defense of our homeland, and this test demonstrates that we have a capable, credible deterrent against a very real threat. I am incredibly proud of the warfighters who executed this test and who operate this system every day," Syring said.
Tuesday, May 30, 2017
A meme with the national security punditocracy on jihadis is that they hate our freedom. Of course, the vast majority of Muslims on the planet are not at war with the West. On the contrary, tens of millions are voting with their feet right now, for the West.
But there is one of our freedoms that some of the jihadis do want to crush. How many Colognes and Tahrir Squares, how many ISIS sex slave fatwas, how many Afghan and Pakistani schoolgirls shot or threatened, and how many Saudi prison sentences for gang-rape survivors will it take before people start to understand that hatred of feminism is the first pillar of modern jihadism?
The answer is always the same. Disdain for women is a constant of Islamic history. Sometimes the culprits are home-grown. Sometimes they are recent arrivals. Sometimes they have been in the West for generations, eat fish and chips and play cricket. Sometimes the perpetrator is a lone wolf, unknown to the authorities. More often it turns out to be a “known wolf”, in the peripheral vision of the security services.
Yet still our society wonders: What would make someone do such a thing? The tone of bafflement is strange — like a society that keeps asking a question, but keeps its fingers lodged firmly in its ears whenever it is given the answer.
Monday, May 29, 2017
The transcript below is directly from the Confidential document, including typos, short forms, etc. Note: POTUS is "president of the United States". PRRD is "Philippines Republic [President] Rodrigo Duterte"
PRRD: This is PRRD speaking. Yes, speaking.
US operator : Yes, Sir, just one moment for President Trump pls.
PRRD: Thank you.
Sunday, May 28, 2017
|Will anyone believe this is Manchester, not Karachi?|
The other 20,000 were previously monitored or investigated and are believed to pose a “residual risk”. This news comes after coward Salman Abedi, 22, blew himself up in a sickening suicide bombing at the Manchester Arena on Monday, killing 22 people.
Security minister Ben Wallace told The Times: “The figures reveal the scale of the challenge from terrorism in the 21st century. “Never has to been more important to invest in intelligence-led policing.”
Saturday, May 27, 2017
In a truly shocking twist the Suptreme Court decided the grown Iraqi man may not have realised the 10-year-old Austrian boy did not want to be sexually abused by him. Amir A, 20, was visiting the Theresienbad pool in the Austrian capital of Vienna last December as part of a trip to encourage integration. When the youngster went to the showers, Amir A. allegedly followed him, pushed him into a toilet cubicle, and violently sexually assaulted him.
Following the attack, the accused rapist returned to the pool and was practising on the diving board when police arrived, after the 10-year-old raised the alarm with the lifeguard. The child suffered severe anal injuries which had to be treated at a local children's hospital, and is still plagued by serious post-traumatic stress disorder.
Friday, May 26, 2017
Speakers at this event also describe Qasim as the ‘first Pakistani’ and then trace and place the creation of Pakistan to the arrival of the Arab commander 1,300 years ago. Overplayed or underplayed by historians and scholars, this general from Arabia remains a mystery to many.
Curiously, the JI was originally opposed to the man who actually created Pakistan (in 1947): Mohammad Ali Jinnah. JI’s founder, Abul Ala Maududi, had found Jinnah to be steeped in the ‘Western notion’ of nationalism and too Westernised to deliver and head a Muslim state.
Thursday, May 25, 2017
|Breast-ironing to be banned in UK.|
Hundreds of British mums are "breast-ironing" their daughters using (heated) rocks, hammers and spatulas - with an MP now calling for the practice to be made a criminal offence. It is thought more than 1,000 women across the UK have been subjected to the barbaric ritual.
The sickening act is commonplace in parts of Muslim Africa, but those at the frontline of child protection say it is also happening in African Muslim communities in the UK. It has now resulted Conservative MP Jake Berry calling for "breast-ironing" to be made a criminal offence.
Wednesday, May 24, 2017
Another 59 people are being treated for injuries in eight hospitals after the suicide-bombing blast just outside the Manchester Arena, where an Ariana Grande concert had just concluded at around 10:30 p.m. local time on Monday. Islamic State has claimed responsibility for the attack, according to Reuters.
“We have been treating this as a terrorist incident and we believe, at this stage, the attack last night was conducted by one man. The priority is to establish whether he was acting alone or as part of a network,” Ian Hopkins, chief constable of Greater Manchester Police, said in a statement Tuesday. The police chief said the attacker was carrying an “improvised explosive device” that he detonated at the scene, causing the deaths and injuries. The attacker died at the site, Hopkins confirmed.
Tuesday, May 23, 2017
The Khmer Times reported that local police confirmed the discovery of a body, which has been identified as 42 year old Vietnamese national. The report goes on to say that the man was discovered in his hotel room at the casino, and that the serious wounds to his throat and body left police in no doubt that he had been murdered.
After further investigations were made, the four employees were arrested. The local police force stated that the deceased had crossed over from Vietnam into Cambodia in order to gamble, and having lost his money, had taken a loan from the suspects currently in custody.
Monday, May 22, 2017
"In your nation, as in mine, religion unifies, it doesn't divide," Pence said to Indonesian President Joko Widodo the following morning at the Jakarta Palace. Pence lauded Indonesia, the largest Muslim-majority country, for "its tradition of moderate Islam," which he called "an inspiration to the world."
He also toured the Istiqlal Mosque, designed by North Sumatran Christian architect Frederich Silaban for Indonesia's first president, Sukarno, who insisted it be built near the Jakarta Cathedral and Immanuel Church as a symbol of religious harmony. (Pence even managed to force his wife and two daughters to put on ugly headbags as hijabs.)
Sunday, May 21, 2017
There is, however, one difference: terrorism is a justification for curbing freedom of expression often used by governments irrespective of how democratic or undemocratic they may be. Blasphemy serves not only as a tool for governments but has also empowered religious ultra-conservatives, frenzied mobs, and extremist groups and individuals.
A four-decade long, massively funded Saudi public diplomacy campaign has created an enabling environment in Muslim-majority countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh, where alleged blasphemers and atheists have been kidnapped, abused and sometimes killed in recent months and years.
Saturday, May 20, 2017
|China's ambitious One Belt One Road Initiative (OBOR).|
Chinese President Xi Jinping pledged at least US$113 billion in additional funds for his US$1.3 trillion One Belt One Road (OBOR) initiative, also known as the new Silk Road, at a recently concluded summit held in Beijing. But how much of those pledged Chinese funds will actually be delivered to neighboring Southeast Asia?
Asia confronts an astounding US$8 trillion infrastructure-spending gap over the next decade, according to Asia Development Bank projections. Despite fast economic growth, most Southeast Asian nations lack the resources to meet those needs and are eagerly seeking external assistance for meet the financial shortfall.
(Kasim is well known in Pakistan as "The First Pakistani", for he and his army of Arab-Muslim men killed all native Buddhist and Hindu men and took their women and girls and started a new breed the Pakistanis in then Northern India.)
The next Muslim invaders were the Yamini Turks led by Sultan Mahmud, who between 1001 and 1027 launched at least 17 military incursions into India from Afghanistan with devastating consequences endured particularly by the Buddhist community.
The next large Muslim invasion took place in 1175 under Muhammad Ghuri, who made it as far as Thanesar just north of Delhi before being blocked by the united armies of the Hindus in 1191. He returned a year later and completely overwhelmed the Indians, sweeping away resistance to his eastward march.